Technologie als toegangspoort voor kennis en inzicht

2012 Apr 02

Door Margreet van den Berg, Chris Kockelkoren en Judith van Hooijdock

Docenten mopperen weleens dat de ‘jeugd van tegenwoordig’ achter een laptop (tablet, smartphone) zit weggedoken tijdens hun lessen, maar voor deze nieuwe jongeren is dat logisch. Deze ‘digital natives’ hebben immers nooit anders meegemaakt dan omringd te zijn door technologie. Deze technologie stelt hen in staat om kennis te verwerven, in contact te komen en te blijven met de wereld om hen heen, en hun creativiteit te ontplooien. De technologie is voor hen geen belemmering om kennis te verwerven, maar vormt juist een brug naar die kennis. Technologie stelt studenten van deze eeuw in staat om zich kennis en inzicht te verwerven.

In een onderzoek (2011) onder jongeren (die ook wel Einstein-generatie, Generatie Y of Internet-generatie wordt genoemd) is gevraagd welke waarden zij belangrijk vinden. De volgende centrale waarden worden genoemd: authenticiteit, respect, zelfontplooiing, geluk, gezellig, samen. Deze waarden zijn ook allemaal terug te vinden in hun gebruik van social media.

Authenticiteit betekent ergens voor staan en duidelijk een eigen mening hebben: dat is belangrijk. En dat geldt voor iedereen, de student, zijn vrienden, maar ook ouders en docenten. Voor communicatie betekent dat een docent die hip doet maar het niet is, respect verliest. Dat zelfontplooiing van belang is, sluit aan bij diverse onderzoeken, die uitwijzen dat zelfontplooiing een veel belangijker drijfveer is  voor het leveren van prestaties, dan beloning (http://youtu.be/u6XAPnuFjJc).

 De 21e eeuw is al ruim 10 jaar onderweg. We ervaren allemaal dat onze samenleving sterk veranderd is onder invloed van technologie, (mobiele) internet en de opkomst van sociale netwerken. Dat heeft uiteraard ook invloed op ons werken en leren. In deze veranderende maatschappij, hebben mensen andere vaardigheden nodig dan pakweg 25 jaar geleden, nl.  ‘vaardigheden van de 21e eeuw’ of wel ‘21st century skills’.

21st century skills

De Universiteit Twente heeft in een literatuurstudie, neergelegd in de Discussienota 21st Century Skills (2010), de vereiste competenties geanalyseerd.
Diverse onderzoeken noemen 7 vaardigheden:  communicatie, samenwerking, ICT-geletterdheid, probleemoplossend vermogen, creativiteit, kritisch denken en sociaal-cultureel bewustzijn als de belangrijke competenties.  

De discussienota concludeert dat 21st century skills geïntegreerd  moeten worden in het curriculum en gerealiseerd in de kernvakken van de opleiding. Dit vraagt om docenten met 21st century teaching skills.

Docenten zouden verschillende onderwijsstrategieën en beoordelingsprocedures onder de knie dienen te krijgen. Daarvoor moet de docent zich allereerst de 21st century skills eigen maken en die kennis vervolgens toepassen binnen zijn onderwijs. Daarvoor kan gebruik gemaakt worden van het TPACK-model.

Het TPACK-model beschrijft de kennis die een docent nodig heeft om ict te integreren in zijn of haar onderwijs. Om ict op een zinvolle manier in te zetten in het onderwijs, moet de docent weten hoe de vakinhoud inzichtelijk en begrijpelijk gemaakt kan worden met behulp van ict en welke didactiek het leren van bepaalde onderwerpen met behulp van ict versterkt. Daarvoor is het niet alleen noodzakelijk dat een docent beschikt over afzonderlijke kennis van ict, didactiek en vakinhoud, maar juist dat hij begrijpt hoe deze kennisdomeinen  - vakinhoud (Content Knowledge), didactiek (Pedagogical Knowledge) en ict (Technological Knowledge) - met elkaar samenhangen en hoe deze samenhangt met de context waarbinnen onderwijs wordt gegeven: de doelgroep van het onderwijs en de omgeving waarin deze doelgroep zich bevindt. Daarom is voor het zinvol en succesvol integreren van ict in het onderwijs ook kennis van doelgroep, school, infrastructuur en omgeving noodzakelijk.

TPACK biedt geen competenties maar laat docenten (bij voorkeur in teamverband) nadenken welke vaardigheden ze nog nodig hebben om ict echt goed te gebruiken. 


TPACK model

SURFacademy biedt de cursus 21eDingen aan, waarmee docenten kennis kunnen maken met diverse web2.0-tools. 21eDingen biedt de docent handreikingen op het gebied van techniek (Technological Knowledge) en didactiek (Pedagogical knowledge) hoe hij zijn vakkennis (Content Knowledge) effectiever kan overdragen aan en delen met de student. Docenten (en andere medewerkers van onderwijsinstellingen)  die hebben leren werken met één of meer van de 21eDingen:

  • ·      hebben de vaardigheid om deze tools succesvol in hun onderwijs in te zetten (Technological Knowledge);
  • ·      weten hoe ict ingezet kan worden in hun onderwijs en welke doelen ze hiermee kunnen bereiken (Pedagogical Knowledge);
  • ·      hebben meer mogelijkheden om bij te blijven op hun vakgebied (Content Knowledge);
  • ·      hebben meer kennis en kunde van de context waarbinnen het onderwijs plaatsvind;
  • ·      docenten die zonder angst of twijfel durven te experimenteren met ict-tools;

De docent kan de eDingen inzetten om 21st century skills in het onderwijs in te bedden (bijvoorbeeld door samenwerking en reflectie te stimuleren) of om zelf zijn 21st century skills te versterken en daarmee de kennis van zijn vak te vergroten. Dit stelt hen in staat om efficiënter en beter onderwijs te geven, dat beter aansluit op de leefwereld en de behoefte van de student.


Tijdens het Nationaal Congres Onderwijs & Social Media (31 mei 2012) kunt u kennis maken met deze praktische toolbox en de praktijkervaringen van Zuyd Hogeschool.

Margreet van den Berg, Chris Kockelkoren  & Judith van Hooijdonk
25 maart 2012

 

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